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Free ICS/SCADA Cyber Security Questions for Eccouncil ICS/SCADA Cyber Security Exam as PDF & Practice Test Software

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Total 75 questions

Question 1

How many IPsec modes are there?



Answer : D

IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) primarily operates in two modes: Transport mode and Tunnel mode.

Transport mode: Encrypts only the payload of each packet, leaving the header untouched. This mode is typically used for end-to-end communication between two systems.

Tunnel mode: Encrypts both the payload and the header of each IP packet, which is then encapsulated into a new IP packet with a new header. Tunnel mode is often used for network-to-network communications (e.g., between two gateways) or between a remote client and a gateway.

Reference

'Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol,' RFC 4301.

'IPsec Modes of Operation,' by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).


Question 2

Which of the following is the stance on risk that by default allows traffic with a default permit approach?



Answer : D

In network security, the stance on managing and assessing risk can vary widely depending on the security policies of an organization.

A 'Permissive' stance, often referred to as a default permit approach, allows all traffic unless it has been specifically blocked. This approach can be easier to manage from a usability standpoint but is less secure as it potentially allows unwanted or malicious traffic unless explicitly filtered.

This is in contrast to a more restrictive policy, which denies all traffic unless it has been explicitly permitted, typically seen in more secure environments.

Reference

'Network Security Basics,' by Cisco Systems.

'Understanding Firewall Policies,' by Fortinet.


Question 3

Which of the IPsec headers contains the Security Parameters Index (SPI)?



Answer : B

IPsec uses two main protocols to secure network communications: Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP).

Both AH and ESP use a Security Parameters Index (SPI), which is a critical component of their headers. The SPI is a unique identifier that enables the receiver to select the correct security association for processing incoming packets.

AH provides authentication and integrity, while ESP provides confidentiality, in addition to authentication and integrity. Both protocols use the SPI to manage these functions securely.

Reference

'IPsec Security Architecture,' RFC 4302 (AH) and RFC 4303 (ESP).

'IPsec Explained,' by Juniper Networks.


Question 4

Which of the IEC 62443 security levels is identified by a hacktivist/terrorist target?



Answer : C

IEC 62443 defines multiple security levels (SLs) tailored to address different types of threats and attackers in industrial control systems.

Security Level 4 (SL4) is designed to protect against sophisticated attacks by adversaries such as hacktivists or terrorists. SL4 involves threats that are targeted with specific intent against the organization, using advanced skills and means.

This level assumes that the adversary is capable of sustained and focused efforts with significant resources, including state-level actors or well-funded groups, aiming at causing widespread disruption or damage.

Reference

IEC 62443-3-3: System security requirements and security levels.

'Industrial Network Security: Securing Critical Infrastructure Networks for Smart Grid, SCADA, and Other Industrial Control Systems,' by Eric Knapp.


Question 5

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) requires how many Security Associations?



Answer : D

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) typically requires two Security Associations (SAs) for a secure communication session. One SA is used for inbound traffic, and the other for outbound traffic.

In the context of IPsec, which is often used to secure VPN connections, these two SAs facilitate the bidirectional secure exchange of packets in a VPN tunnel.

Each SA uniquely defines how traffic should be securely processed, including the encryption and authentication mechanisms. This ensures that data sent in one direction is handled independently from data sent in the opposite direction, maintaining the integrity and confidentiality of both communication streams.

Reference

'Understanding IPSec VPNs,' by Cisco Systems.

'IPsec Security Associations,' RFC 4301, Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol.


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Total 75 questions